How to froth milk for espresso based coffee – Frothing milk to pair with espresso based coffee is an age old tradition and is still widely practised today. It is a generic term used to describe the action of incorporating air into milk by breaking the surface of the milk, thus allowing the milk to double in volume. However, the term is actually used quite loosely and is sometimes confused with steaming milk, which actually involves heating the milk. Milk frothing is also quite a general term in that it does not indicate the method being used to create frothed milk. Traditionally, milk is steamed and frothed using the steam wand on an espresso machine – this is what we commonly see when the baristas at our local speciality coffee shop are trying to create latte art. However, there are actually many methods to froth milk and create milk foam at home without the use of a coffee machine.
Things to Consider
How to froth milk for espresso based coffee – When trying to froth milk, it is always a good idea to start with cold milk that has been just taken out of the refrigerator. Especially when you are steaming the milk for latte art using an espresso machine, it is very important to use cold milk, as you will need enough time for the steam wand to incorporate air into the milk. If you were to start the process with room temperature milk, you might end up with an inadequate amount of air in the frothed milk, by the time the milk gets too hot and is burnt.
Another thing to consider is the type of milk you will be using for the milk frothing process. In most cases, it is recommended that you use fresh milk that has a fat percentage of at least 3.2%. This will ensure that there is enough fat and protein to safely and easily froth the milk to the rich and creamy texture that is desired. In the market today, most full cream milk products will sit between 3.2% to 3.5%, though if you fancy milk that is richer and creamier, there are also products such as Greenfields Jersey Milk which contains 4.5% of fat. When used in the milk steaming or frothing process, it can produce a luxuriously smooth and creamy end product. That said, it is also possible to froth and steam low-fat milk or skim milk. However, it will just be a little bit harder to achieve the same texture as full cream milk and will require a little bit more skill when it comes to heat management while steaming the milk.
Frothing Milk Using an Espresso Machine
How to froth milk for espresso-based drinks – Frothing and steaming milk using the steam wand on an espresso machine is probably the easiest way to do this, seeing as the piece of equipment was purpose-built. However, owning an espresso machine at home is perhaps the harder part as many of us do not have enough space in our apartments for a full-fledged espresso machine. However, if we are lucky enough to own one, then this method is likely your go-to method to froth milk as it is the desired method to produce smooth and creamy frothed milk that is suitable for latte art. Keeping the key principles of milk frothing in mind, the goal is to incorporate air into the cold milk and increase its volume, while simultaneously heating it up to the desired temperature. By inserting the steam wand into a pitcher of milk, the steam serves as the medium of air that is being incorporated into the milk. During the milk steaming process, it is important to listen for the “hissing” of the steam wand, which is a good sign that air is being incorporated into the milk. If you hear a deeper gurgling sound, that might be indicative that the steam wand is inserted too far into the pitcher, and not catching enough air at the surface of the milk. To read about the full process of frothing and steaming milk with an espresso machine, check out our guide on How to Froth Milk with an Espresso Machine.
Frothing Milk Without an Espresso Machine
How to froth milk for espresso-based drinks – If you are frothing milk without an espresso machine, keep in mind that should you require the frothed milk to be heated, you will need to do so separately, as the frothing methods offered through a french press or an electric milk frother do not necessarily heat the milk up. There are essentially 3 types of equipment that are suitable for frothing milk without a steam wand and espresso machine – Using a french press, an electric milk frother, or electric milk frothing wand. In all three applications, the principle of milk frothing is once again the same, and that is to incorporate air into the milk by breaking the surface of the milk. In a french press, the process is mechanical and will require you to work the plunger up and down to create the milk foam. In the electric milk frother and the electric milk frothing wand, there is an element of automation in it, where the appliance will do the job of swirling the milk for you, thus creating milk foam. To read about the process of frothing milk with each of these 3 types of apparatus, check out our guide on How to Make Frothy Milk without an Espresso Machine.
How to make frothy milk without a coffee machine? – This is a common question among consumers today for one very simple reason. Not many people have the luxury of owning a proper espresso machine with a steam wand at home. The good news is that you can still create frothed milk or steamed milk without having to purchase expensive equipment, but instead, using simple, readily available apparatus that is inexpensive. Using these tools, it is unlikely that you will be able to get the microfoam quality needed for a proper latte art free pour, but you will still be able to increase the volume of your cold milk, and add a richer texture and mouthfeel to your coffee drink.
Understanding the Principles of Frothing Milk
In order to understand how you can make frothy milk without a coffee machine, it is useful to first understand the principles behind making frothy milk. Whether this is being done in a speciality coffee shop or in the comfort of your own home, the concept is the same. In order to get frothed milk, what you are essentially trying to do is to incorporate air into the milk as much as possible. As long as you are able to incorporate air into the milk, you will be able to create air pockets within the milk solids, causing the milk to increase in volume. The method with which you use to incorporate air into the milk will affect the size of the air bubbles that you are creating in the milk. This in turn influences whether or not your milk foam is airy or dense.
Choosing the Right Type of Milk
The type of milk that you use will also somewhat affect your milk foam. Milk that has a higher fat content, will generally possess more body which helps in the process of incorporating air into your milk. For these reasons, speciality coffee shops that serve each cup with latte art typically use fresh milk or full cream milk. Low-fat milk and skim milk can also be used to create frothed milk, but will generally take a little bit longer. For whatever reason, if you require an extremely dense or thick foam, it is recommended that you do so with full cream milk or fresh milk as this will provide you with the highest chance of success.
Using an Electric Milk Frother
One easy way to create frothy milk without a coffee machine is to use an electric milk frother. These are generally inexpensive appliances that you can purchase at almost any household store or online. The mechanics of an electric milk frother are simple – There is a spinning attachment that will help circulate the milk rapidly, thus incorporating air into the milk. Take note that the electric milk frothers typically operate at a lower intensity than an immersion blender or a regular blender. It is not advisable to use an immersion blender or regular blender for milk frothing purposes, as the speed and intensity of the blades will likely split the milk. When shopping for electric milk frothers, consider that there are two formats available on the market. The first is a standard electric milk frother, which basically features a vessel that holds your milk, with the spinning attachment located at the bottom of these vessels. These types of milk frothers are extremely convenient and can get the job done with a touch of a button. However, you do not really have control over the density of frothed milk you are going to get. Another format that is available is more of a milk frothing wand, which is essentially a handheld device with a spinning attachment. This is inserted into your pitcher of milk to froth it up. Using this device is not really as convenient as using an electric milk frother, as you have to be hands-on throughout the entire process. However, it does give you a far greater level of control over the end product. When inserted at an angle into the pitcher, it is possible to create a swirl that minimizes the size of air bubbles being incorporated. The end result is a frothed milk that is much smoother and denser, closer to what you might expect to see in a speciality coffee shop.
Using a French Press
Another method which one can employ to create frothy milk without a steam wand on a coffee machine is through the use of a french press. To do this, simply half-fill your french press with cold milk, and move the plunger up and down into the milk until the milk is frothed up. This method does not offer much control over the end product but is extremely fuss-free and inexpensive. Air incorporation using this technique is also very prominent, and it is not uncommon for users of this technique to see their milk double in volume. To get a nice and smooth foam to go with your coffee drink, it is recommended that after the process of incorporating air, you scoop out the more airy foam at the top, before utilising the denser frothed milk at the bottom. Alternatively, this method works well if you are trying to create more of a cappuccino than a latte, where the presence of airy froth is a good thing.
How to froth milk with an espresso machine? – For as long as we can remember, coffee and milk have gone hand in hand. Across different cultures, different forms of milk have been used to accompany coffee, one of the world’s most popular beverages. One of the most notable coffee cultures is that of Italian coffee culture, where some of our favourite espresso drinks like Lattes and Cappuccinos are now part of our everyday routine. Although many of us know how to enjoy these beverages, not all of us know how milk frothing works, and how exactly our favourite speciality coffee shops create that rich and creamy texture in the steamed milk used for Latte Art. In theory, the concept is simple – Using the steam wand on the espresso machine, the jet of steam swirls the milk and breaks the surface of the milk in the frothing pitcher, incorporating air into the milk and increasing its volume, while simultaneously heating the milk. However, each step of the process presents its own set of considerations.
Preparing to froth milk – Choosing the right milk
The first step to frothing milk with an espresso machine is to choose the appropriate type of milk. In most speciality coffee shops and gourmet cafes around the world, fresh milk is used. This is also known as full cream milk. Usually, the fat content of the fresh milk sits at between 3.2% to 3.5% and possesses a good amount of fat and milk solids to adequately create the rich and creamy texture desired in espresso-based milk drinks. For this reason, fresh milk or full cream milk is recommended for this process. If low-fat milk or skim milk is preferred to full cream milk, it is also possible to create froth milk. However, do note that because of the lower fat and protein content, the milk frothing process might take a slightly longer time, and may not produce as rich or as creamy a texture as full cream milk.
Preparing to froth milk – Tools and equipment
Once you have decided on the type of milk you wish to use for the milk frothing process. You should dispense the milk into a milk pitcher that is designed for milk frothing and milk steaming. These are typically made of metal, and may or may not be powder coated with colour. For milk frothing purposes, metal is preferable to other materials, as you will want to keep watch over the temperature of the milk during the frothing process. While you may use a thermometer to do so, it is common for baristas to use their hands, placed against the metal pitcher as a gauge of temperature – Thus the preference for metal milk frothing pitcher. On the espresso machine itself, you will want to purge the steam wand before placing it into your milk pitcher. This is because, after a where the steam wand is not used, water will start to build up within the steam wand. The purging of the steam wand is meant to get rid of this excess water so that it does not enter your milk pitcher and dilute the milk unnecessarily. When purging the steam wand, it is a good idea to point the tip of the steam wand into the drip tray, so that the hot water and steam exiting the steam wand does not scald you.
Frothing the milk with an espresso machine
Once you have purged the steam wand of any excess water, it is time to steam your milk. Position the steam wand at a comfortable angle for you, and raise your milk frothing pitcher into the steam wand so that the steam wand sits at a 45-degree angle. Turn on the steam wand fully to allow for an unobstructed flow of steam to travel from the boiler of the espresso machine, through the steam wand, and into the cold milk.
At this point, the steam passing into the milk should start to swirl the milk – this is an important step. When the milk starts to swirl, the surface of the milk is broken and the air is being incorporated into the milk, increasing its volume. At the same time, the milk is also being heated up from the steam that is entering the milk. While doing this, place your free hand around the milk frothing pitcher – stop steaming the milk when the temperature of the pitcher just becomes unbearable to touch. During the process, if there is no swirl happening at the surface of the milk, it may be because your steam wand is inserted too deep into the milk frothing pitcher.
On the flip side, if you hear an excessive amount of “hissing” from the steam wand, it is indicative that your steam wand is catching too much air into the milk, which will make the frothed milk too airy and undesirable. Once done, remove the milk pitcher from the steam wand, and wipe down the steam wand with a damp cloth. Also, purge the steam wand to get rid of any excess milk that might be left in the steam wand nozzle. If done correctly, you should notice that your cold milk is now hot, and has increased in volume. You might also notice that it now has a thicker consistency than before, and develop a sheen on the surface. On occasion, you might find that above the smooth sheen on the milk surface, there are still some larger bubbles. A quick and easy way to get rid of these bubbles would be to swirl the steamed milk inside the pitcher, and also tap the bottom of the pitcher onto your workstation counter or surface. This should help to break apart the air bubbles to get you a smooth and creamy consistency for your steamed milk. Combine with your espresso shot for your favourite milk-based espresso drinks.
How to make microfoam milk for latte art – Depending on the apparatus used and the eventual size of the air bubbles in your frothed milk, it is suitable for use in different coffee styles. For example, larger air bubbles in frothy milk are suitable for use in a cappuccino, while high-quality latte art demands a milk foam that is finer and smoother in texture. In industry terms, we refer to this as microfoam. While there are subtle techniques and precision involved with creating microfoam, the basic concept remains the same as other types of milk foam, where the air has to be incorporated into the milk by breaking the surface of the milk while simultaneously heating the milk using a steam wand from an espresso machine.
Choosing the Right Milk to Make Microfoam Milk
How to make microfoam milk for latte art – Before getting into specifics about technique, it is important to start with a good base, in the form of a suitable type of milk. As a general rule of thumb, microfoam milk should be smooth, rich, and creamy, with only very fine air bubbles in the milk foam when the milk is poured. The size of the air bubbles is dependent on the technique applied with frothing the milk, but the creaminess and texture are largely down to the type of milk chosen for this purpose, and the fat content present in the milk. Most speciality coffee shops use full cream milk that contains between 3.2% to 3.5% fat by default for all their latte art needs. This is recommended as the fat content provides a good base to easily produce microfoam for latte art. Low-fat milk and skim milk can also be used but will require a little bit more technique, and some adjustment to the milk frothing technique in order to achieve a similar result. In some cases, where an individual fancies a richer and creamier end product, they may also use other dairy milk products such as Jersey Milk. One such product is Greenfields Jersey Milk, which contains 4.5% fat, making it a very candidate for use in creating milk foam for latte art and latte art free pouring.
Considerations when Making Microfoam Milk
How to make microfoam milk for latte art – In creating microfoam, the objective is to create a frothed milk that has extremely fine and small air bubbles. This is difficult to achieve with most home apparatus such as an electric milk frother or a french press and is usually done through a steam wand on an espresso machine. When frothing the milk, it is important not to fill the milk frothing pitcher up too full. This is because the milk will need to be swirled during the steaming process, and will need space to do so. During the milk steaming process, as the air gets incorporated into the milk, the milk will also start to increase in volume. This is another reason why the milk pitcher should only be filled until the bottom of the spout.
Before starting the frothing process, it is important to purge the steam wand of any condensed water present in the steam wand. If this is not done, water would get pushed into the milk and dilute it, making it difficult for you to achieve the desired creamy texture needed for microfoam milk. During the milk steaming process, it is key to consider the angle and depth of the steam wand is inserted into the milk. What you’ll want to achieve is a steady swirl at the surface of the milk, with occasional “hissing” that is heard from the steam wand. The steady swirl helps to ensure that large air bubbles do not form on the surface of the milk, while the “hissing” gives a good indication that air is being introduced into the milk. To achieve this, start off by inserting the steam wand at an angle into the milk pitcher, up to mid-depth. During this process, if you are only able to see slight ripples at the surface of the milk, with no air hissing, it is likely that the steam wand has been inserted too deep into the pitcher, and is only steaming the milk, but not necessarily frothing it.
Once you are done with the milk steaming and milk frothing process, you might still notice some air bubbles on the surface of the milk. Swirl the milk in the pitcher and knock the pitcher onto your workstation if necessary to get rid of any excess bubbles. The end product should have an extremely smooth surface texture with a slight sheen to it. It is important to note that for latte art, excessive amounts of milk foam is not desirable. As such, if you find that the volume of milk has increased too much, it might be a good idea to dispose of some of the top foam. An easy way to do this is to tilt the milk pitcher sideways while holding the handle and pour decisively via the rim of the pitcher. Do not pour through the spout, as this will only release the steamed milk from under the foam, which is the portion that you will want to keep for latte art.
What is pasteurized milk? – There are many milk terminologies that are thrown around in the market today, and a simple visit to the supermarket is likely to leave you confused as to what the different types of milk mean. Pasteurized milk is one of the most common types of milk you will find in the dairy section of most food retail stores. Pasteurized milk is essentially fresh milk that has gone through the pasteurization process to make raw milk safe for consumption and give it better shelf life. This is done by exposing raw, unpasteurized milk to a high but brief amount of heat, thus making it safe to drink, and under proper storage conditions, has a better shelf life than unpasteurized milk. In most countries, it is mandatory for all consumer milk products sold in retail stores to be pasteurized. This is part of public health efforts toward disease control and prevention. As such, almost all of the fresh milk that you see in the supermarket is likely pasteurized. However, pasteurization is not the only process to make milk safe for consumption. There is also another process called Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) which is also used for the treatment of raw and unpasteurized milk.
Why Do We Pasteurize Milk:
Raw milk in general has the possibility of containing a whole host of bacteria. These bacteria are inherent to the livestock and milking process and are present even in very sanitary environments. As such, the primary objective of pasteurization is food safety – to ensure that public health is upkept through disease control and prevention. As dairy products are very widely consumed throughout the world, the pasteurization process is critical to this effort. Also in line with maintaining public health, pasteurization helps to extend the shelf life of the milk. With proper temperature control and storage, an unopened carton of pasteurized milk will have significant shelf-life advantages over unpasteurized milk.
Is Pasteurized Milk the Same as UHT Milk:
The short answer is no. – Although pasteurized milk and UHT milk both go through heat treatment processes that allow them to be safe for consumption, the UHT process is more intensive than the pasteurization process. For UHT Milk, the objective is to create a product that is safe for consumption under ambient storage conditions for a long period of time. However, for pasteurized milk, the end goal is to have a product that is safe for consumption under chilled storage conditions for a shorter period of time. Because of the difference in intensity of the heat treatment process used, pasteurized milk and UHT milk will present slightly differently in terms of colour, taste, and texture. One is not better than the other, and each has its key uses in the food industry. However, pasteurized milk is generally regarded to be richer and creamier, while UHT milk is considered to be much more shelf-stable.
What is UHT Milk? – UHT milk, or Ultra Heat Treatment Milk, is a commonly used technique in the processing of milk by milk production facilities to ensure the food safety of the milk. In the UHT process, milk is exposed to ultra heat for a short time so as to kill off any unwanted and harmful bacteria that may be present in raw milk, yet still retaining its nutritional content. The higher temperatures that are used in this process help to ensure that milk is not only safe to consume, but also shelf-stable when packaged. This allows the finished product to be kept in its sealed and unopened packaging at ambient room temperature for extended periods of time. The UHT process is a kind of pasteurization process, although it is carried out at higher temperatures as compared to pasteurized milk.
UHT milk actually plays an extremely important role in the global food supply chain, mainly because of its quality as shelf-stable milk. As it is able to be stored at room temperature for an extended period of time, UHT milk can be stored together with dried goods, with no food safety concerns over its integrity when handled, transported, and stored as an ambient product. This shelf-stable quality of UHT milk thus allows the product to utilised in environments and conditions that fresh milk would never be able to handle as fresh milk would require storage and handling in refrigerated conditions. UHT milk products are commonly used in large scale food service operations like catering, hotels, and production kitchens. Other situations that call for the use of UHT milk for their shelf-stable properties include its use on shipping vessels, in disaster relief operations, in emergency food storage facilities, in the military, as well as in situations with limited or no access to refrigeration. That being said, UHT milk is also widely used as an everyday staple by people living in various environments.
While UHT milk has many qualities that lend itself to be easily used by almost anyone and everyone, there are certain things that UHT milk cannot do. For example, during the UHT process, the whey proteins in the milk do change in their structure, and as a result, cheese and butter cannot be made using UHT milk, as they call for the protein structures that are found in pasteurized milk, whole milk, fresh milk, or even raw milk. Additionally, because of the change in protein structure within UHT milk, the taste of UHT milk is somewhat different and can appear sweeter to certain palates, while sometimes also presenting a “cooked” taste. Depending on the individual using the milk, these traits can be viewed either as desirable or undesirable for the use case. As such, fresh milk and other milk format alternatives still exist to cater for a wider audience.
For example, in the speciality coffee industry, where speciality coffee shops use frothed milk to free pour latte art designs, baristas rely on the fat and protein structures found in fresh milk to produce a rich velvety texture within the frothed milk – sometimes known as microfoam. This process is possible with other types of milk, though fresh milk or whole milk remains the preferred choice among baristas.
Dairy products form a large part of our diet. Milk especially plays a major role on our breakfast table, and also throughout our day. Whether it’s a big coffee mug for your partner, a hot cup of tea for yourself, or a warm glass by itself for the kids, you cannot deny that this delicious and nutritious treat is a favourite for most families.
Research has proved that after breast milk, the next best option for humans is cow milk. And among the many kinds of cow milk, almost nothing can beat the goodness of Jersey cow milk, which is much more nutritious than a typical cow’s milk.
While Jersey milk has traditionally been perceived as a luxury across Great Britain and other neighbouring countries, Greenfields has made Jersey Milk accessible for everyone who appreciates the nutritional value of its richer nutrition, with the launch of its Fresh Jersey Milk product.
THE MORE NUTRITIOUS CHOICE, WITH RICHER AND CREAMIER TASTE.
Greenfields Fresh Jersey milk originates from one of the most recognisable breeds of cow in the world-Jersey cows, a brown breed of dairy livestock that are highly productive in generating quality milk. These hail from the island of Jersey in the British Channel Islands, near the border of England and France. Dairy farming experts have long identified Jersey cow’s milk as being better than that from many other breeds of cows in terms of nutrition and taste.
Jersey milk has been exported to many countries of the world, including here in Southeast Asia. However, Greenfields has now become one of the first to begin producing Fresh Jersey milk locally right here in the region, ensuring you can get the freshest Jersey milk without having to import it from far away.
To date, Greenfields is home to more than 3600 Jersey cows!
Jersey milk is not only more nutritious, it also tastes richer and creamier, with a fuller mouthfeel that’s an absolute delight to savour. It is indisputably an ideal choice to make milk confections and beverages like smoothies, milkshakes and also a good match with coffee or tea, especially since it does not leave a strong after-taste despite its thicker texture.
What makes Greenfields Jersey Milk so creamy? It’s simply fundamentally different from other milks in terms of fat content. Jersey Milk contains more milk fat (29%) than other milks . Fat in milk acts as a tenderiser and moisturiser, so using fat-rich Jersey Milk in cakes and muffins will make them moister, with a finer crumb that’s even more delightful to eat.
Of course, they’ll make an even creamier complement to any cup of coffee or tea than regular milk, too!
Any cow’s milk is about the source of calcium there is, and contains many essential vitamins and minerals, like Vitamin A, D, B1, B12, magnesium, zinc and potassium. But milk from Jersey cows is even better. It has an even higher protein content and is naturally higher in nutrients and vitamins compared with fresh milk¹.
The importance of protein to us cannot be overstated. As one of the three great macronutrients (the other two being carbohydrates and fats), proteins are literally the building blocks of our body, providing the raw materials needed to create and maintain our physical and mental functions through processes like cell repair and immunity boosting.
As a major source of protein for children, a 250ml glass of milk usually already contains approximately 8-10 grams of protein. Greenfields Fresh Jersey Milk contains 10% more protein than regular fresh milk², offering richer nutrition and stronger bodies with every sip.
With more calcium content, Jersey milk helps keep your bones and teeth healthy even more than regular milk. The quantity of Vitamin D found in Jersey milk helps in better calcium absorption.
It also has nutrients like Vitamin B-12, which is necessary for bone growth, while also helping in improving your immunity naturally.
Jersey milk gives children in their formative years the energy that their active bodies crave as they grow and play. Jersey milk has 11% more non-fat milk solids e.g. phosphorus, potassium and riboflavin, which is essential for metabolic energy production.
Greenfields is the first Jersey milk producer in Indonesia, and one of the first few in Southeast Asia. Our Fresh Jersey Milk is derived from 100% natural and fresh milk from the Jersey cows on our very own Greenfields farms, produced in line with our Greenfields Farming Philosophy which drives for excellence in quality above all else.
Our farms, and our Jersey cows, are maintained by a team of professionals and experts who are equipped with over 20 years of accumulated experience. Our cows are milked with a cutting-edge automated milking system that keeps the milk clean, in line with our “no-human-touch” policy to prevent germ contamination. Both our cows and their milk are free of any added hormones or antibiotics. Our ISO-certified integrated process of production and pasteurization ensures maximum freshness from farm to fridge.
Greenfields cares for the health of your family as much as you. The new Fresh Jersey Milk promises a richer, deeper nutritional content that will nourish you and your family even better than before. With its creamier taste and better nutrition, Jersey milk could also become your new go-to ingredient for baking!
Without doubt, Greenfields Fresh Jersey Milk is the better choice of milk for a happier and healthier family.
1,2,3Compared to Greenfields Fresh Milk